However, this exploratory phase has opened a window into the lives of street children, revealing information and issues which require further investigation and attention. As for treatment, it depends on how much money street children can afford when one of them becomes sick. Many factors contribute to the police abuse of street children, including the police perceptions of the children, widespread corruption, a culture of police violence, the inadequacy and non-implementation of legal safeguards, and the level of impunity that the police enjoy. Although the above remarks reflect the problematic situation of the contemporary black South African child, drastic reforms have taken place since the former State President F. Objective testing of self esteem is difficult to find. This work captures homeless youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The public and the media still need convincing of the worth of street children and the contribution they can make to resolving the situation.
Because of street children's lack of protection from a family and the law, employers often exploit them, making them virtual prisoners, sometimes withholding pay, and abusing them. A girl under 15 is five times more likely to die during pregnancy than a women in her twenties; her child is also more likely to die. The present research confirms these findings. I had so many clothes on - scarf, hat and gloves and it was still really cold. Although these obstacles relate particularly to the accessing of health services, similar problems exist for street children in trying to access housing, welfare benefits, educational opportunities and employment.
For example, because girls carry the liability of dowry and leave the family home after marriage, parents may prefer to have male offspring. There is severe abuse at home. When parents die, some children face hostility and fail to get basic support and care, so they retreat to the streets. West and Farrington 1977 in their longitudinal study of London boys showed that the boy's accounts of their criminal convictions agreed well with official records. Verbal and psychological abuse were reported the most. Of significant importance is that the majority of health services have been developed by adults for adults. Other studies include that 7,200 children, including infants, are raped every year in India, and the government refuses to comment on these serial child abuses that continue.
These circumstances lead children to engage in behaviors that children in families typically do not, such as creating a new identity, using aggression frequently, and valuing relationships based on what can be gained from them. Report on Phase I of the Street Children Project Part 3 of 9 This report is reprinted in nine parts with permission of the World Health Organization, Programme on Substance Abuse, 1993. The few authors who have considered race suggest that in Latin America at least, black and mixed race children may be over-represented among street children. Sexual health Street children are sexually active early in life table. Girls are different from boys in this regard, as they consider their bodies their assets when they sell sex in return for money and protection. They are exposed to the elements, have an uncertain supply of food, are likely miss out on education and medical treatment, and are at high risk of suffering addiction, abuse and illness.
Family problems include such things as death of a parent, alcoholism of father, strained relationships with stepparents, parent separation, abuse, and family violence. Other studies have found that many illnesses are very prevalent among street children. Children often experience the effects of political, economic, and social crises within their countries more severely than adults, and many lack the adequate institutional support to address their special needs. Drug use by children on the streets is common as they look for means to numb the pain and deal with the hardships associated with street life. They thought this would probably affect her for the rest of her life.
It appears that in these communities the least tolerated aspect of this problem is having to witness young girls on the street. These children are among the most deprived; they usually have no access to health care or education and some of them have been victims of violence even before taking to the street. Sadly, many children are kidnapped and treated as slaves by the kidnappers. These children are exposed to high health hazards as population and unhygienic conditions of living. Additional information was obtained from the resource centre at the Institute of Child Health in London, the International Child Resource Unit in San Francisco, and the Henry Durrant Institute in Geneva. Many children find their own escape from street life through glue-sniffing and other drugs.
The large range illustrates how difficult it is to count street children accurately. Amnesty International has estimated that 90% of the killings of children in Brazil go unpunished. I-India also provides education on tracking malnutrition to local staff in 233 village health centres, benefiting 33,000 rural children. In relating the stories of their lives, they may be communicating in a way which is open to misunderstanding. Nonetheless, more action is necessary.
One root cause that has been identified is poverty. Some reasons are simple, some complex. Child Abuse Negl : 2013 Pubget. Some older girls exchange sex for money Lugalla and Mbwambo, 1999. In addition to fulfilling their material needs, we seek to provide a warm and caring atmosphere.
Mainstream health and social services are often regarded with suspicion, mainly because so called welfare has historically been associated with punishment. In Bombay, 50,000 children are illegally employed by 11,750 hotels, restaurants, canteens, tea shops, and eating places. The families of street children may hold the same views. Whereas girls, often are employed or earn an income off the streets, for example working in factories, making crafts, employed in domestic services, involved in commercial sex and vending. Often girls who end up on the streets are recruited into the commercial sex industry or are taken into institutional care. Social Network As mentioned earlier, street children depend on peer groups as their social network for their protection, support and solidarity.