While their academic potential is limited, they can learn simple health and safety skills and to participate in simple activities. Intellectual disability can be distinguished in many ways from , such as or. Drug interactions and medication side effects must also be considered. Failure to adapt normally and grow intellectually may become apparent early in life or, in the case of mild intellectual disability, may not become recognizable until school age or later. I wanna ask some question regarding this mental retardation.
Treatment Federal legislation entitles mentally retarded children to free testing and appropriate, individualized education and skills training within the school system from ages 3-21. Such tests include the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, and the Kaufmann Assessment Battery for Children. An infection of the membrane covering the brain meningitis or an inflammation of the brain itself encephalitis cause swelling that in turn may cause brain damage and mental retardation. Postnatal causes may include infections, poisons, poor nutrition, trauma, and sociocultural factors such as deprivation. Differential Diagnosis When possible, treatment should be directed at the medical illness, psychiatric disorder, or other underlying cause of the maladaptive behavior. This led to forced sterilization and prohibition of marriage in most of the developed world and was later used by as a rationale for the mass murder of people with intellectual disability during the.
Alcohol abuse can cause mental retardation, malformation, growth retardation, miscarriage, and behavioral disorders in infants. In the past, medical professionals called this. Greek and Roman philosophers, who valued reasoning abilities, disparaged people with intellectual disability as barely human. To allow for these possible distortions, Sovner 9 proposed that the standard diagnoses for mania and depression be modified, when applied to the developmentally disabled, to focus on biologic signs and symptoms and behavioral equivalents to subjective states. The fourth or final difference could be that of connectedness. Disability studies scholars, in concert with the disability rights movement, have steadfastly supported inclusive policies and have argued that the perceived problems in special education have more to do with how the concepts of disability and inclusion have been interpreted than with anything else.
It can also be caused by extreme malnutrition, not getting enough medical care, or being exposed to poisons such as lead or mercury. Mental retardation is a developmental disability that first appears in children under the age of 18. It is thought to be between 1%—3% depending upon the population, methods of assessment, and criteria of assessment that are used. In order to develop an appropriate treatment plan, an assessment of age-appropriate adaptive behaviors should be made using developmental screening tests. The factors that are difficult to avoid is ecology and environment. Non-syndromic or cases account for 30—50% of cases.
They may be able to develop basic self-care and communication skills with appropriate support and training. The findings strongly suggest that among children with mental retardation too, the cognitive and social skills are interrelated. In Sue's case, her functioning is impaired because she has extreme social phobia. Inherited causes of mental retardation are numerous; for example, chances of giving birth to a mentally-challenged child increase if one or both parents were mentally retarded. Besides, in disadvantaged regions, mental handicaps can be caused additionally by malnutrition, disease-producing conditions, and inadequate medical care—both for mothers and children The Prevention News. These children typically have difficulties with social, communication, and functional academic skills.
. On rare occasions when she must go out in public, Sue takes hours to prepare herself and may even become physically sick. There was no impact of the age factor on the social development of mentally retarded children. Until the in Europe, care and asylum was provided by families and the church in monasteries and other religious communities , focusing on the provision of basic physical needs such as food, shelter and clothing. This defect may cause children to develop an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside the skull hydrocephalus. They typically acquire communication skills in childhood and are able to live and function successfully within the community in a supervised environment such as a group home.
Damage the brain, caused mental retardation, may be stipulated by various factors acting on the embryo and fetus in utero, during delivery or in the postnatal development. It is observed that with increasing severity of mental retardation, the level of social development decreases. The patient with mental retardation. He may experience impaired development of , but often this symptom is slight. This study shows that as the level of mental retardation increases, social development decreases correspondingly. Proper care for the mother during pregnancy and for the baby in the first months of life is also important. Mental disorders are assumed to result from some behavioral, psychological, or biological dysfunction in the individual.
Genetic conditions include chromosomal abnormalities such as and and errors of metabolism such as , , and. The term intellectual disability covers the same population of individuals who were diagnosed previously with mental retardation in number, kind, level, type, duration of disability, and the need of people with this disability for individualized services and supports. Although ancient Roman law had declared people with intellectual disability to be incapable of the that was necessary for a person to commit a crime, during the 1920s, Western society believed they were morally degenerate. Descriptors such as normalization, communitization, least restrictive environment, and inclusive society speak to the current resolve to provide an enhanced setting for participation in usual form. Danforth and Rhodes, Brantlinger, Taylor, and Gallagher, among others, have argued that the failure to question and deconstruct the category of intellectual disability contributes to the devaluation and stigmatization of students with disabilities. Which explanation for autism is no longer considered valid and lacks research support? Throughout much of human history, society was unkind to those with any type of disability, and people with intellectual disability were commonly viewed as burdens on their families. In many cases, the symptoms of mild retardation are subtle enough to go undetected for many years.