Cuban Missile Crisis Facts - 15: Russian military forces were put on alert. Sixth: Under the Charter of the United Nations, we are asking tonight that an emergency meeting of the Security Council be convoked without delay to take action against this latest Soviet threat to world peace. Faced with this dramatic documentation, President John F. This urgent transformation of Cuba into an important strategic base -- by the presence of these large, long-range, and clearly offensive weapons of sudden mass destruction -- constitutes an explicit threat to the peace and security of all the Americas, in flagrant and deliberate defiance of the , the traditions of this nation and hemisphere, the joint resolution of the 87th Congress, the Charter of the United Nations, and my own public warnings to the Soviets on September 4 and 13. The implicit message was if the United States invaded Cuba, the Soviets would invade Turkey, and the conflict could escalate. And having now confirmed and completed our evaluation of the evidence and our decision on a course of action, this Government feels obliged to report this new crisis to You in fullest detail.
Our policy has been one of patience and restraint, as befits a peaceful and powerful nation which leads a worldwide alliance. My fellow citizens: let no one doubt that this is a difficult and dangerous effort on which we have set out. In his commencement address at American University, President Kennedy urged Americans to reexamine Cold War stereotypes and myths and called for a strategy of peace that would make the world safe for diversity. For many years, both the Soviet Union and the United States, recognizing this fact, have deployed strategic nuclear weapons with great care, never upsetting the precarious status quo which insured that these weapons would not be used in the absence of some vital challenge. Now your leaders are no longer Cuban leaders inspired by Cuban ideals. Who was involved in the Cuban Missile Crisis? He supports this by stating multiple times that the missiles are a direct threat to peace. Second: I have directed the continued and increased close surveillance of Cuba and its military buildup.
They contribute nothing to your peace and well-being. Thus, on that chilly morning in October, Jack faced both his greatest challenge and his greatest opportunity as president: the chance to stand up to Nikita Khrushchev and assert the strength of the United States in a major confrontation. I have this afternoon instructed the Secretary of Defense to lift our naval quarantine. Kennedy's use of rhetorical appeals and devices, to make his speech more effective, then there could have been an end to most of the population of the U. But now further action is required, and it is under way; and these actions may only be the beginning. Kennedy immediately decided that the missiles would have to be removed and called his most trusted advisers together to serve as an Executive Committee of the National Security Council, or ExComm. But this secret, swift and extraordinary buildup of communist missiles -- in an area well known to have a special and historical relationship to the United States and the nations of the Western Hemisphere, in violation of Soviet assurances, and in defiance of American and hemispheric policy -- the sudden, clandestine decision to station strategic weapons for first time outside of Soviet soil -- is a deliberately provocative and unjustified change in the status quo which cannot be accepted by this country, if our courage and our commitments are ever to be trusted again by either friend or foe.
Many times in the past Cuban people have risen to throw out tyrants who destroyed their liberty. And then shall Cuba be welcomed back to the society of free nations and to the associations of this hemisphere. What date was the Cuban Missile Crisis? This urgent transformation of Cuba into an important strategic base, by the presence of these large, long-range, and clearly offensive weapons of sudden mass destruction, constitutes an explicit threat to the peace and security of all the Americas, in flagrant and deliberate defiance of the Rio Pact of 1947, the traditions of this nation and Hemisphere, the joint Resolution of the 87th Congress, the Charter of the United Nations, and my own public warnings to the Soviets on September 4 and 13. The United States also had nuclear missiles in Turkey which were pointed at Russia. And one path we shall never choose, and that is the path of surrender or submission. Kennedy and Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev John F. Members discussed a number of possible responses: do nothing; take the issue to the United Nations and the Organization of American States; offer to remove U.
I speak to you as a friend, as one who knows of your deep attachment to your fatherland, as one who shares your aspirations for liberty and justice for all. One of the biggest problems Kennedy faced was racial discrimination. Four tactical air squadrons were readied for air strikes over Cuba, with missile sites, airfields, ports, and gun emplacements as their potential targets. Several of them include medium-range ballistic missiles capable of carrying a nuclear warhead for a distance of more than 1,000 nautical miles. This quarantine will be extended, if needed, to other types of cargo and carriers. We have in the past made strenuous efforts to limit the spread of nuclear weapons. In his third point, Kennedy stated that any missile launched from Cuba against any nation in the western hemisphere would be regarded as an attack by the Soviet Union against the United States.
By stating this, Kennedy showed that America was ready for any type of action taken by the Soviets. Click photo for high resolution Additional sites not yet completed appear to be designed for intermediate range ballistic missiles -- capable of traveling more than twice as far -- and thus capable of striking most of the major cities in the Western Hemisphere, ranging as far north as Hudson Bay, Canada, and as far south as Lima, Peru. The characteristics of these new missile sites indicate two distinct types of installations. This urgent transformation of Cuba into an important strategic base -- by the presence of these large, long-range, and clearly offensive weapons of sudden mass destruction -- constitutes an explicit threat to the peace and security of all Americas, in flagrant and deliberate defiance of the Rio Pact of 1947, the traditions of this nation and hemisphere, the joint resolution of the 87th Congress, the Charter of the United Nations, and my own public warnings to the Soviets on September 4 and 13. The October 14 photographs, however, changed the nature of the game and set in motion a series of extraordinary events. All ships of any kind bound for Cuba from whatever nation or port will, if found to contain cargoes of offensive weapons, be turned back. Should these offensive military preparations continue, thus increasing the threat to the Hemisphere, further action will be justified.
Fifth: We are calling tonight for an immediate meeting of the Organ of Consultation under the Organization of American States, to consider this threat to hemispheric security and to invoke articles 6 and 8 of the Rio Treaty in support of all necessary action. Crisis management consists of three crisis prevention, crisis response, and recovery from the crisis. Within a year, Kennedy and Khrushchev signed the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, the first disarmament agreement of the nuclear age. But the greatest danger of all would be to do nothing. The characteristics of these new missile sites indicate two distinct types of installations.
At home, many of his policy initiatives stalled in Congress, but he intervened quickly to prevent unfair business practices by the steel industry, and offered cautious support for the rising. This strength of character, embodied in Mr. . Plug-in required for flash audio Your browser does not support the audio element. The Potential Cuban War- The Cuban Missile Crisis.
The purposes of these bases can be none other than to provide a nuclear strike capability against the Western Hemisphere. Neither the United States of America nor the world community of nations can tolerate deliberate deception and offensive threats on the part of any nation, large or small. Within the past week, unmistakable evidence has established the fact that a series of offensive missile sites is now in preparation on that imprisoned island. I have directed the Armed Forces to prepare for any eventualities; and I trust that in the interest of both the Cuban people and the Soviet technicians at the sites, the hazards to all concerned of continuing this threat will be recognized. On 25 July, two rival superpowers reached an agreement to ban the testing of nuclear bombs in air, space, and water—but not underground.