Rent in new buildings is therefore necessarily higher than that in old buildings. Fear also keeps and safety. After forty years of writing about cities, I am pretty certain of one thing — there are people who love the city and its clangorous activity, and there are people who love well-sodded suburbia. Since rebuilding slums is essentially a form of slum shifting, this is not the solution to end decay of neighborhoods or the solution to eradicate slums. I can recognize some of what Jacobs discusses as things that I don't believe are still happening, and some of her suggestions as policies that I've now seen in practice.
The strategy of rebuilding has not been successful. The first edition of this novel was published in 1961, and was written by Jane Jacobs. Little of their social life involves neighbors, and their friends may be scattered all over the metropolitan area, as are the commercial and recreational facilities which they frequent. In some cases, such views are rewarding; in others, unforgettable. But to build a framework for analysis of planning, Jacobs digs into what makes a city work or not work based on analysis of the day-to-day street life and studies of a wide variety of neighborhoods in many American cities, and for me that was the most interesting part. Population instability is the third factor in the life cycle of cities. This can best be illustrated by examining her discussion of slums and her proposals for urban renewal.
Just the mechanics of people learning what s going on is so difficult. Yet the fact is, physically it has changed remarkably little. I doubt there are many crates on the sidewalk any more. Washington Square is unsuccessful, but Rittenhouse Square is very successful. Jacobs provides a good analysis of what contributes to the success of neighborhoods by looking at city streets and sidewalks, parks and neighborhoods. Everything tends to degenerate into ineffective cliques, as a natural course. It can occur in low density areas because of poverty.
Lively, diverse areas encourage walking. The principles of neighborhood planning which derive from her observations—she is herself a resident of Greenwich Village—are far more closely attuned to how people actually live than are those of orthodox city planning. I have to admit that I skimmed much of the last third of the book, chapters in which Jacobs proposes techniques to bolster the vitality of city blocks and eliminate or, at least, blunt the results of bad planning. Finally Jacobs argues that cities are a problem of organized complexity. Philadelphia is a good example— using cars—better public transportation routes, mediocre public transportation leads to a reliable service, make the city more condusive stronger reliance on cars. This possibility must also be considered for the new luxury and middle-class housing projects.
This change has provided new material for one of the basic themes of the ongoing critique of American society—the destruction of tradition by mass-produced modernity. The third function of the sidewalk is to assimilate children, that is to provide a non-matriarchy environment in which they can play. The author plans to propose different principles based on common everyday things like sidewalks and parks. But the fact still remains that many people like to live in such isolated towers or groupings of towers. New buildings have high costs of construction to cover and therefore have to charge higher rents than older building. The Death and Life of American Cities is primarily about urban planning. Storekeepers also help to keep order and peace while their establishments help to attract people and increase the numbers of people on the sidewalks.
The social structure of the sidewalk hinges partly on so called self-appointed public figures. Having no love for walking or for riding public transit, they have brought shopping centers into being. To be sure, a good city neighborhood can absorb newcomers into itself, both newcomers by choice and immigrants settling by expediency, and it can protect a reasonable amount of transient population too. Blocks should be short, for corners invite stores, and these bring people out into the streets for shopping and socializing. Streets need Fear keeps people out of a intersections. Planning should not mean tearing down and rebuilding.
Massive single facilities such as railroad tracks, enormous parks, and college campuses create vacuums in areas immediately next to their borders because such areas adjoining borders are a terminus of generalized use. Sun, shaded in the summer, should be present in parks, as well as building to enclose parks. As noted earlier, she argues that slums are caused ultimately by lack of diversity. Hudson is a product of the density of Manhattan population and the verticality of their homes. A final function of sidewalks is to provide a non-matriarchy environment for children to play. Her blanket indictment of planners detracts from the persuasiveness of her other proposals, and antagonizes people who might agree with her on many points. This provides the analytical foundation for the rest of the book.
And, aside from this structural clout, the political system in Chicago gives the local alderman virtual control over the distribution of city services in a ward. Three levels of city neighborhoods; city, districts, and streets, can be identified. Jacobs's simple and cogent point is that successful neighborhoods are ones that win the loyalty of their residents, leading the residents to want to stay and improve the neighborhood rather than move out at the first opportunity to somewhere better. She left Scranton for New York City. Moreover, self-appointed public characters such as storekeepers enhance the social structure of sidewalk life by learning the news at retail and spreading it.
Public and private spaces cannot ooze into each other as they do typically in suburban settings or in projects. A community is needed as well, for raising children, and also to keep adults reasonably sane and cheerful. Jacobs argues that visual cohesiveness should not be regarded as a goal. The government guarantees a rent to the landlords. There is no normal public life. Jacobs writes were built for a style of life which is going out of fashion with the large majority of Americans who are free to choose their place of residence.