Henry's eldest son, the Henry hoped to take a similar approach to regaining control of in southern France. Theobald mobilised his forces along the border with Touraine; Henry responded by attacking in Blois in a surprise attack; he successfully took Theobald's castle in a notable siege. Henry and his lawyers also made use of the Roman legal concept of a distinction between the possession of property and the absolute right to property. Important legal developments of the reign are lucidly treated in Sir Frederick Pollock and , The History of before the Time of 2 vols. Because the law codes of England varied locally between the laws of Wessex based largely upon the Doom Book of Alfred the Great and the law code of Ine of Kent and the laws of the Danelaw based on Scandinavian traditions plus of course that of the Normans. Henry also expanded his holdings in France, acquiring Vexin, Brittany, and Toulouse.
His wife was captured and the rebels defeated. The weather was extremely hot, the King was increasingly ill and he appears to have wanted to die peacefully in Anjou rather than fight yet another campaign. He was nonetheless busy resolving some of the weaknesses that he believed had exacerbated the revolt. Henry's familiares were particularly important to the operation of his household and government, driving government initiatives and filling the gaps between the official structures and the king. Toulouse, while technically part of the Duchy of Aquitaine, had become increasingly independent and was now ruled by Count , who had only a weak claim to the lands. Henry hoped for a longer term political solution, however, similar to his approach in Wales and Scotland, and in 1175 he agreed to the Treaty of Windsor, under which would be recognised as the , giving homage to Henry and maintaining stability on the ground on his behalf.
But it seems that much of the threatening side of his nature was deliberately cultivated, stage-managed to get his own way. Philip's offer coincided with a crisis in the Levant. Louis had the marriage and Henry married Eleanor eight weeks later on 18 May. Following the birth of these children, Matilda preferred to remain based in Westminster while Henry travelled across England and Normandy, either for religious reasons or because she enjoyed being involved in the machinery of royal governance. The papacy intervened once again to try to produce a last-minute peace deal, resulting in a fresh conference at in 1189. In practice, however, Louis perceived himself to have gained a temporary advantage, and immediately after the conference he began to encourage tensions between Henry's sons.
Matilda had been educated in a sequence of convents, however, and may well have taken the vows to formally become a nun, which formed an obstacle to the marriage progressing. Negotiations dragged on, but Thomas remained in exile till 1170. You have to supply the vitamin Dsupplement in rather high dose periodically. Henry was also careful to show that, unlike his mother the Empress, he would listen to the advice and counsel of others. Young Henry was unhappy that, despite the title of king, in practice he made no real decisions and was kept chronically short of money by Henry.
With his eldest son dead, Henry rearranged the plans for the succession: Richard was to be made king of England, although without any actual power until the death of his father. In England, Henry initially relied on his father's former advisers whom he brought with him from Normandy, and on some of Henry I's remaining officials, reinforced with some of Stephen's senior nobility who made their peace with Henry in 1153. In his absence the lands were ruled by and , and beneath them local officials in each of the regions carried on with the business of government. John offended the , failed to make allies amongst the Anglo-Norman settlers, began to lose ground militarily against the Irish, and finally returned to England within the year. Louis's alliance was joined by Henry's younger brother, , who rose in revolt, claiming that Henry had dispossessed him of his inheritance.
Some chronicler accounts may have been influenced by Stephen's acquisition of the throne in 1135 and the later events of the Anarchy. She was born into a powerful ruling class of , who traditionally owned extensive estates in both England and Normandy, and her first husband had been the. To these lands he added the duchy of Aquitaine by his marriage May 18, 1152 to Eleanor, daughter of the late duke. By the Assizes of Novel Disseisin and of Mort d'Ancestor those who had been violently dispossessed of their land could get trial in the king's court, not by the old crude method of duel but by the evidence of sworn neighbors. Canterbury, traditionally the senior of the two establishments, had long argued that the Archbishop of York should formally promise to obey their Archbishop, but York argued that the two episcopates were independent within the English Church and that no such promise was necessary. The pope supported Becket's case in principle but needed Henry's support in dealing with , so he repeatedly sought a negotiated solution; the Norman church also intervened to try to assist Henry in finding a solution.
Henry endured a rather limited storm of protest over the incident and the controversy passed. Not in Alexandria, or Rome, or Camelot has there been such a queen. This process was far from perfect and in many cases claimants were unable to pursue their cases effectively. Henry was a harsh, firm ruler, but not excessively so by the standards of the day. In response to this, Henry declared his daughter, , his heir and married her to. The quarrel, which focused largely on the jurisdiction of the church courts, came to a head when Henry issued 1164 the Constitutions of , defining the relationship between , and it ended 1170 in Becket's murder, for which Henry was indirectly responsible.
Henry's mother, , was the granddaughter of , and she probably named Henry after her uncle, King. His plan did not have the desired result, however, as Becket promptly changed his lifestyle, abandoned his links to the King and portrayed himself as a staunch protector of church rights. The Archbishop refused to be arrested by relatively low-born knights, so they hacked him to death on 29 December 1170. Henry harassed Becket's associates in England, and Becket religious and secular officials who sided with the king. With the aid of such competent jurists as Ranulf de , he clearly established the superiority of the royal courts over private, feudal jurisdictions. The prospective Flemish invasion forced Henry to return to England in early July.
In June 1120, Henry and Louis formally made peace on terms advantageous to the King of England: William Adelin gave homage to Louis, and in return Louis confirmed William's rights to the Duchy. In the face of the increasingly wintry weather, the two men agreed to a temporary truce, leaving Henry to travel north through , where the powerful , Earl of Leicester, announced his support for the cause. Alliances and relationships with neighbouring counties along the Norman border were particularly important to maintaining the stability of the Duchy. Indeed, in most cases he was probably not personally responsible for creating the new processes, but he was greatly interested in the law, seeing the delivery of justice as one of the key tasks for a king and carefully appointing good administrators to conduct the reforms. In 1187 surrendered to and calls for a new crusade swept Europe. The three main chroniclers to describe the events of Henry's life were William of Malmesbury, Orderic Vitalis, and Henry of Huntingdon, but each incorporated extensive social and moral commentary into their accounts and borrowed a range of literary devices and stereotypical events from other popular works. Interpretation of Henry's personality by historians has altered over time.