But both views share the weakness of thinking that morality and even reason runs out on us when the going gets tough. Deontology The Deontologist maintains that some or all actions are right or wrong in themselves, because of the type of action they are, whether or not they produce the best consequences. Jack Kevorkian created a device called a thanatron, a machine designed to allow a person to kill themselves; the machine contained canisters of drugs which were connected to the person to be euthanised by intravenous lines by Kevorkian. Mountainview: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1999. First, there are very few cases where modern medicine cannot alleviate suffering and pain. Thus, active euthanasia is sometimes morally permissible.
She felt that her life had become devoid of enjoyment, meaning, and quality as she was in constant pain and unable to move her own body. Argument 2: The Equivalence Argument. Two of these are particularly apt for revealing the temptations motivating the alternative approach to deontic ethics that is deontology. If a woman has a life plan to be the best prostitute in America, but has an accident that confines her to a wheelchair such that she is in no pain, can lead a relatively productive life in various ways, but can no longer pursue her desire to be the best prostitute, that person could want to commit suicide. Examples of these would be John Locke in the seventeenth century, Richard Price in the eighteenth century and David Ross and H. Similarly it is permissible to withhold nourishment from a patient in a persistent vegetative state and allow them to die.
If a person wants to be allowed to commit euthanasia, it would clearly be inconsistent for them to say that they didn't think it should be allowed for other people. My argument is based on ideas that are rooted in both utilitarian and deontological ethics as I will show throughout the essay. One popular form of consequentialism is utilitarianism; the idea that an act is morally permissible just in case it brings about the greatest good or 'utility' for the greatest number of people. Opposing the principle of Sanctity of Life there is the principle of Quality of Life; roughly speaking this concerns the degree to which a life is fulfilling, pain free, and enjoyable. Such a directive could express the fact that no heroic means need to be administered if the person becomes terminal and death is imminent, but that the person wishes to be kept alive if he or she is not terminal as an expression to the community of the intrinsic value of human existence. But moral principles must have enough content to serve as action guides principles with enough teeth to tell us what to do and not do. We might also say that it is particularly characteristic of human nature to wish to preserve its own dignity and autonomy.
Premise four explains how God is all good meaning that He opposes all things Evil. It is the second choice, physician assisted suicide, which presents the moral quandary. But I think one can say that whereas believers are entitled to their own misgivings, they are not entitled to impose them on others who do not share their religion or do not interpret it in the same way. This may horrify her to the extent that she would rather die than continue to live in such a way. The earliest version of the argument is associated with Socrates in ancient Greece.
To conclude, I would like to make one final point. Artificial food and water are different from, say, a mechanical respirator. But food and water do not have as their direct or immediate intention the cure of any pathological condition whatsoever. For example, it may be morally permitted to give a patient a painkiller that kills her if the intention is to kill the pain not the patient. Kant, often hard to understand, has many different terms for different things. For example, the stock furniture of deontological normative ethics—rights, duties, permissions—fits uneasily in the realist-naturalist's corner of the metaethical universe. There are competent contemporary advocates of all the three competing views I have presented above.
In other words, Hippocrates was against euthanasia. The famous deontological thinker Immanuel Kant specifically argued against suicide, and so by extension we can also say that getting someone else to end your life for you would also be wrong in his opinion. The Hippocratic Oath, the classic ethical doctrine that guides medical practice, denounces euthanasia. Yet to will the movement of a finger on a trigger is distinct from an intention to kill a person by that finger movement. A problem is that if people have a right to die, and a right to choose, then this seems to indicate that anyone who wants to die, for any reason, should be allowed to kill themselves, and possibly helped to do so. Some Utilitarians say that a change in the law, to permit voluntary euthanasia with due safeguards, would indeed do this. But the other maker of agency here is more interesting for present purposes: the willing must cause the death of the innocent for an act to be a killing of such innocent.
Luthan's dilemmas and how these two theories explore the moral nature of human beings. The debate of the use of active and passive euthanasia and whether it should be morally permissible and accepted into law has been under much controversy over the years. Death, Euthanasia, Health care 1912 Words 5 Pages recent years regarding euthanasia. For if the deaths of the five cannot be summed, their deaths are not worse than the death of the one worker on the siding. For a deontologist, it is the intent of an action rather than its effect which determines morality. Consequentialist theories can be further subdivided: into Egoistic theories, those which see the consequences which matter morally as including only consequences for the doer of the action, the agent, and Universalistic theories, those which see them as including consequences for all those affected.
Thus, while Diane may be making a decision based on what she considers to be her right to dignity, as per Kant, she is doing a wrong to herself and breaking a critical universal moral rule. For such deontologists, what makes a choice right is its conformity with a moral norm. Euthanasia can be a morally correct under appropriate supervision. An excellent example of this fact is found in Kant's sixth educational theory, which is the theory of society. One point that is often missed in the debate on assisted suicide is that according to Swiss law the person must be fully conscious and sane in order to be assisted in death. Two most famous ethicists are John Stuart Mill 1806-1873 and Immanuel Kant 1724-1804.